Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world.
It straddles the Pacific and Indian Oceans as
well as the Asian and Australian continents. It consists of approximately 17,000 islands and has three times more surface covered by sea than land - with 5.8 million square kilometers of sea and 1.9 million square kilometers of terrestrial territories.
Indonesia is also at the center of the Coral Triangle and has one of the richest marine biodiversity in the world. It has over 574 coral species and 45 mangroves species. Its waters and coastlines have approximately 19,805 square kilometers of coral reefs and 29,631 square kilometers of mangroves forest.
Although marine resources are key contributors to Indonesia's food security, livelihood, and way of life, these resources face the same challenges shared by many of its neighbors: overfishing, destructive fishing, pollution and effects of climate change.The Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle Report states that nearly 95% of Indonesia's coral reefs are threatened by human activities with 35% in the very high threat category.
In an effort protect and preserve its marine resources and as part of its commitment to the goals of the Coral Triangle Initiative, the Indonesian government has committed to conserve 200,000 square kilometers of its marine area by 2020. The current total area of MPAs is approximately 187,221 square kilometers or 3.1 percent of the country's Exclusive Economic Zone. At this stage, Indonesia has already covered roughly 94% of its conservation goal.
Marine Area (km2)
MPA Area (km2)
Number of MPA
Coral Reef Area (km2)
Mangrove Area (km2)